Chinese provinces: Liaoning - the birthplace of Manchuria
General informationArea: 145,700 square kmPopulation: 42.28 million (2006)Capital City: ShenyangNationalities: Han (84%), Manchu (13%), Mongolian (2%), Hui (0.6%), Korean (0.6%) and Xibe (0.3%).GDP (2007): CNY1.1 trillionAverage temperature: -17oC to -5oC in January, 21oC to 25oC in July.Mountains: Qianshan Mountains in the east, which are an extension of the Changbai Mountains; Nulu'erhu Mountains in the west.Rivers: Liaohe River, the principal waterway of the province; Yalu River, which forms the boundary between China and Korea.Administrative divisions: 19 cities, 34 counties, and 5 autonomous counties.Neighboring areas: Jilin and Hebei Provinces; Inner Mongolia Autonomous RegionNeighboring country: KoreaMajor cities: Shenyang, Dalian, Anshan, Fushun, Benxi, Dandong, Jinzhou, Yingkou.Tourist attractions: 350-year-old Imperial Palace in Shenyang; Dalian, a summer resort. Liaoning (simplified Chinese: 辽宁; pinyin: Liáoníng) province is located in Northeast China. Its one-character abbreviation is Liao (辽 pinyin: liáo).“Liáo” is an ancient name for this region, which was adopted by the Liao Dynasty (Khitan Empire) which ruled this area between 907 and 1125. “Níng” means “peacefulness”. The modern province was established in 1907 as Fengtian province (奉天 pinyin: Fèngtiān; Postal map spelling: Fengtien) and the name was changed to Liaoning in 1929. Under the Japanese puppet Manchukuo regime, the province reverted to its 1907 name, but the name Liaoning was restored in 1945.Liaoning is located in the southern part of China’s Northeast. The Qin and Han dynasties were able to establish rule over much of what is Liaoning; later on governments headed by various people such as the Xianbei, Goguryeo, Khitan and Jurchen ruled Liaoning.
Geography of LiaoningLiaoning is located in the southern part of China’s Northeast. Liaoning borders the Yellow Sea (Korea Bay) and the Bohai Gulfin the south, North Korea in the southeast, Jilin Province to the northeast, Hebei Province to the west, and Inner Mongolia to the northwest.The Yalu River marks the border between North Korea and the Chinese provinces of Jilin and Liaoning. It empties into the Korea Bay between Dandong (Liaoning) and Sinŭiju (North Korea).The coastline of Liaoning Province is 2,178 km long - nearly 12% of China's total. The hilly regions in east Liaoning are the main area for forest. Adjoining the long, narrow costal plains (usually called the Liaoxi Corridor) is the main road for northeast China, linking with north China. Liaohe Plain in Central Liaoning, as a part of the Northeastern China Plain, has sedimentary deposits from the Liaohe River and other tributaries. The plain has abundant water and fertile soil, and is the main farming area and commodity grain base in the province.
Climate of LiaoningLiaoning Province has a temperate, continental-type monsoon climate, with the mean temperature of the year being 6ºC to 11ºC (42.8 ºF to 51.8 ºF). The minimum temperature in January, the coldest month, can be as low as -30ºC ( -22 ºF) while the maximum temperature can reach as high as 35ºC ( 95 ºF) in July, the hottest month in the year. The frost-free period lasts 130 to 180 days averagely. The annual rainfall in Liaoning ranges from 400mm to 1000mm.
Economy of LiaoningLiaoning has the largest economy of Northeast China. Its nominal GDP for 2009 was 1.51 trillion yuan (ca. US$221 billion) making it the 7th largest in China. Its per capita GDP was 34,193 yuan (US$5,006). Among the three provinces of Northeast China, Liaoning is the largest in terms of GDP.Leading industries include petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics telecommunications, and machinery. On a national level, Liaoning is a major producer of pig iron, steel and metal-cutting machine tools, all of whose production rank among the top three in the nation. Liaoning is one of the most important raw materials production bases in China. Industries such as mining, quarrying, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, petroleum and natural gas extraction, are all of great significance. Meanwhile, Liaoning is an important production base of equipment and machinery manufacturing, with Shenyang and Dalian being the industrial centers. Enterprises such as Shenyang Jinbei Co. Ltd., Daxian Group Co. Ltd., and Shenyang Machine Tool Co. Ltd., are leaders in their sectors. The province’s light industry mainly focuses on textiles and clothing industries which include cotton and wool spinning, chemical fiber production, knitting, silk production, and the manufacturing of both garments and textile machinery.
History of LiaoningLiaoning is located in the southern part of China's Northeast. The Chinese Han dynasty were able to establish rule over much of what is today's Liaoning. Before, governments headed by various people such as the Korean kingdoms as Gojoseon, Goguryeo, Balhae and the Nomadic peoples as Xianbei, Khitan and Jurchen ruled Liaoning. The Ming Empire took control of Liaoning in 1371, just three years after the expulsion of the Mongols from Beijing. Ming was conquered by the Manchus in the early 17th century. The Manchu dynasty, styled "Later Jin", established its capital in 1616-1621 in Xingjing (兴京), then moved to Dongjing (east of today's Liaoyang, Liaoning), and finally in 1625 to Shengjing (now, Shenyang, Liaoning). Although the main Qing capital was moved from Shengjing to Beijing after it fell to the Qing in 1644, Shengjing retained its importance as a regional capital throughout most of the Qing era.In the last half of the seventeenth century (starting with laws issued in 1651 and 1653) the imperial Qing government recruited migrants from south of the Great Wall (notably, from Shandong) to settle the relatively sparsely populated area of Fengtian Province (roughly corresponding to today's Liaoning). Many of the current residents of Liaoning trace their ancestry to these seventeenth century settlers. The rest of China's Northeast, however, remained officially off-limits to Han Chinese for most of the Manchu era.In 1860, the Manchu government began to reopen the region to migration, which quickly resulted in Han Chinese becoming the dominant ethnic group in the region.In the twentieth century, the province of Fengtian was set up in what is Liaoning today. When Japan and Russia fought the Russo-Japanese War in 1904–1905, many key battles took place in Liaoning, including the Battle of Port Arthur and the Battle of Mukden, which was, to that point, the largest land battle ever fought.During the Warlord Era in the early twentieth century, Liaoning was under the Fengtian Clique, including Zhang Zuolin and his son Zhang Xueliang; in 1931, Japan invaded and the area came under the rule of the Japanese-controlled puppet state of Manchukuo. The Chinese Civil War that took place following Japanese defeat in 1945 had its first major battles (the Liaoshen Campaign) in and around Liaoning.At the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Liaoning did not exist; instead there were two provinces, Liaodong and Liaoxi, as well as five municipalities, Shenyang, Luda, Anshan, Fushun, and Benxi. These were all merged together into "Liaoning" in 1954, and parts of former Rehe province were merged into Liaoning in 1955. During the Cultural Revolution Liaoning also took in a part of Inner Mongolia, though this was reversed later.Liaoning was one of the first provinces in China to industrialize, first under Japanese occupation, and then even more in the 1950s and 1960s. The city of Anshan, for example, is home to one of the largest iron and steel complexes in China. In recent years this early focus on heavy industry has become a liability, as many of the large state-run enterprises have experienced economic difficulties. Recognizing the special difficulties faced by Liaoning and other provinces in Northeast China because of their heritage of heavy industry, the Chinese central government recently launched a "Revitalize the Northeast" Campaign.
Administrative divisionsLiaoning is composed of fourteen prefecture-level cities:# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat— Sub-provincial city —1 Shenyang 沈阳市 Shěnyáng Shì Shenhe District2 Dalian 大连市 Dàlián Shì Xigang District— Prefecture-level city —3 Anshan 鞍山市 Ānshān Shì Tiedong District4 Benxi 本溪市 Běnxī Shì Pingshan District5 Chaoyang 朝阳市 Cháoyáng Shì Shuangta District6 Dandong 丹东市 Dāndōng Shì Zhenxing District7 Fushun 抚顺市 Fǔshùn Shì Shuncheng District8 Fuxin 阜新市 Fùxīn Shì Haizhou District9 Huludao 葫芦岛市 Húludǎo Shì Longgang District10 Jinzhou 锦州市 Jǐnzhōu Shì Taihe District11 Liaoyang 辽阳市 Liáoyáng Shì Baita District12 Panjin 盘锦市 Pánjǐn Shì Xinglongtai District13 Tieling 铁岭市 Tiělǐng Shì Yinzhou District14 Yingkou 营口市 Yíngkǒu shì Zhanqian District
Places of Interests and Tourist Attractions of LiaoningBoth mountains and sea contribute to the province's great scenery. The Qian Mountians and Mount Phoenix have become two famous scenic areas. The Karst - formulated Cave at Benxi with an underground river also forms a rare scene in North China. Along the 2,200-kilometer-long coastal line of the Liaodong Peninsula, there are many beaches and summer resorts, with Dalian Beach being ranked as the best. There are also many natural and human intellectual tourist resorts along the Yalujiang River, inlcuding the natural preserves of the Celestial Cave, Mount Laotudingzi, Mount Yiwulu, and the well-known Snake Island near Lushunkou.As the birthplace for the Manchurias, Liaoning has relics and ruins of the Qing Dynasty. The Shenyang Imperial Palace is a well-preserved imperial palace second only to Beijing's Forbidden City. Famous historical and cultural cities of China in Liaoning include Shenyang, Dalian, Anshan, and Wushun. National key scenic areas in the province include the Qian Mountains, the Yalujiang River, the Xingcheng Beach, the Golden Rock Beach, the Dalian Beach, Lushunkou Port, the Phoenix Mountain, and the Cave at Benxi.
Liaoning Local CuisineThe Lumingchun Restaurant in Shenyang is noted for the high quality of its Typical Local Food selected ingredients and the delicious dishes which boast all the appealing colour, fragrance, taste, and shape. The Restaurant is particularly good at the Shandong style dishes as well as seafood dishes, such as stewed bear paw, peach like prawns, etc.At Shenyang you can enjoy Imperial court dishes. Delicious dumplings served at the Laobian Dumpling Restaurant in Shenyang are a favorite with many tourists. Also a Chinese-style sandwich with smoked meat and spring onions is a snack typical of the North-eastern food. As Dalian abounds in aquatic products, it is famous with seafood delicacies. At the top of a long list of such delicacies are: stewed dried scallop, steamed whitefish, roast prawns, steamed abalones, etc. Other local representative dishes made of bear paw, moose nose, and other delicacies are served in big Restaurants throughout the Liaoning Province
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