Chinese Provinces: Jilin - China's automobiles,train carriages manufacturing base
General informationArea: 180,000 square kmPopulation: 27.50 million (2007)Capital City: ChangchunNationalities: Han (91%), Korean (4%), Manchu (4%), Hui (0.5%), and Mongolian (0.6%)GDP: CNY522.6 billion (2007)Average temperature: -20oC to -14oC in January, 16oC to 24oC in July.Rivers: Di'er Songhua River, the longest waterway in Jilin; Yalu and Tumen Rivers, which form the boundary between China and Korea.Lakes: Songhua Lake, also known as Fengman Reservoir, is a renowned artificial lake; other large lakes are the Yueliang Pao, Oagan Nur and Dabusu Pao.Administrative divitions: 1 autonomous prefecture, 14 cities, 3, counties and 2 autonomous counties.Neighboring areas: Heilongjiang and Liaoning Provinces; Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.Neighboring countries: Russia and Korea.Major cities: Changchun, Jilin, Siping, Tonghua, Baicheng, Yanii, Huniiang, Liaoyuan, Tumen. Jilin (Chinese: 吉林; pinyin: Jílín)province is located in the Northeast China. The name “Jilin” probably originates from Girin ula, a Manchu term meaning “along the river”; this was transcribed into Jilin wula (T: 吉林烏拉 / S: 吉林乌拉) in Chinese, then shortened to Jilin. The literal meaning of the Chinese characters for “Jilin” is “auspicious forest”.
Geography of JilinJilin lies in the central part of northeastern China, bordering Russia and North Korea in the east and southeast respectively. Jilin is highest in altitude in the southeast, and drops gently towards the northwest. The Changbai Mountains run through its southeastern regions, and contains the highest peak of the province, Baiyun Peak at 2691 m. Other mountain ranges include the Jilinhada Mountains, Zhang Guangcai Mountains, and Longgang Mountains.Jilin is drained by the Yalu and Tumen Rivers in the extreme southwest (which together form the border between the People's Republic of China and North Korea), by tributaries of the Liao River along the southern border, and by the Songhua and Nen rivers, both eventually flowing into the Amur.
Climate of JiangxiJilin has a northerly continental monsoon climate, with long, cold winters and short, warm summers. Average January temperatures range from -20 to -14°C. Rainfall averages at 350 to 1000 mm.
Economy of JilinIn 2009, the nominal GDP of Jilin province totaled RMB 720.3 billion (US$105.5 billion). Per capita nominal GDP increased to RMB 26,289 (US$3,848) in 2009. Jilin's agricultural production is centered upon rice, maize, and sorghum. Rice is mostly cultivated in the eastern parts, such as Yanbian prefecture. The Changbai Mountains are an important source of lumber. Herding of sheep is an important activity in the western parts, such as Baicheng prefecture-level city.Compared to other provinces of China, Jilin has extensive deposits of Kieselguhr, wollastonite, floatstone, and molybdenum.Industry in Jilin is concentrated on automobiles, train carriages, and iron alloy.Jilin is one of the most important commodity grain bases in China, Ranked 6th in timber production. The yields of ginseng and deer antlers are among the largest in China, being used extensively in Traditional Chinese medicine.
History of JilinIn ancient times Jilin was inhabited by various peoples, notably the Mohe and the Wùjí (勿吉). It formed the territory of the Buyeo. However, later became territory of the Goguryeo kingdom. The kingdom of Balhae was established in the area from 698 to 926. The region then fell successively under the domination of the Khitan Liao Dynasty, the Jurchen Jin Dynasty, and the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, much of the area was under the control of the General of Jilin, whose area of control extended to the Sea of Japan to encompass much of what is Russia's Primorsky Krai today. Immigration of Han Chinese was strictly controlled.However, after the Primorsky Krai area was ceded to Russia in 1860, the Qing government began to open the area up to Han Chinese migrants, most of whom came from Shandong. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Han Chinese had become the dominant ethnic group of the region. In 1932, the area was incorporated into Manchukuo, a puppet state set up by Japan, and Changchun (then called Hsinking), capital of Jilin today, was made the capital of Manchukuo. After the defeat of Japan in 1945, the region, together with the rest of northeastern China, was handed to the communists by the Soviet Union. Manchuria was then the staging ground from which the communists eventually conquered the rest of China.In 1949, Jilin province was smaller, encompassing only the environs of Changchun and Jilin City, and the capital was at Jilin City, while Changchun was a municipality independent from the province. In the 1950s Jilin was expanded to its present borders. During the Cultural Revolution, Jilin was expanded again to include a part of Inner Mongolia, giving it a border with the independent state of Mongolia, though this was later reversed. In recent times Jilin has, together with the rest of heavy industry-based Northeast China, been facing economic difficulties with privatization. This has prompted the central government to undertake a campaign called “Revitalize the Northeast”.
Administrative divisionsJilin consists of eight prefecture-level cities and one autonomous prefecture:# Name Chinese Characters Chinese Phonetics Administrative Seat— Sub-provincial city —1 Changchun 长春市 Chángchūn Shì Chaoyang District— Prefecture-level city —2 Baicheng 白城市 Báichéng Shì Taobei District3 Baishan 白山市 Báishān Shì Badaojiang District4 Jilin 吉林市 Jílín Shì Chuanying District5 Liaoyuan 辽源市 Liáoyuán Shì Longshan District6 Siping 四平市 Sìpíng Shì Tiexi District7 Songyuan 松原市 Sōngyuán Shì Ningjiang District8 Tonghua 通化市 Tōnghuà Shì Dongchang District— Autonomous Prefecture —9 Yanbian (Korean) 延边朝鲜族自治州 Yánbiān Cháoxiǎnzú Zìzhìzhōu Yanji
Places of Interests and Tourist Attractions of JilinThere is a large area of primeval forest on the Changbai Mountains in the east of the province. The forest has rare birds and animals as well as a great variety of medical herbs, thus becoming one of the national key natural preserves as well as one of the protective networks between human beings and animals, as listed by the UN. There are volcanic ruins on Peak Baitou, which is one of the highest peaks in the mountain range. The Celestial Lake at the Changbai Mountains is considered to be an important volcanic barrier lake. The beautiful Songhuajiang River as well as Songhua Lake are well-known throughout China for its rime fog in the winter.The Aodong City at Dunhua country and the Tomb Oil Mountain Liuxiang are considered as the ruins of the ancient Bohai country. The Puppet Manchurian Emperor Puyi used to live in the puppet palace in Changchun. A strong ethnic flavor can be found in the Yanbian Autonomous Region of the Korean Ethnic Group. The famous historical cities in the province are Jilin and Ji'an. Songhua Lake, Badabu (eight deparments), and Jingyue Lake are national key scenic spots.
Jilin Local CuisineThe Changchun Restaurant in the Changchun city serves localrefreshments, cold dishes, dumplings, hundun, Jilin-style dishes, Shangdong-style dishes and southern dishes with Sichuan and Jiangsu flavors.Among the famous dishes prepared by this restaurant, Li Liangui pancake, braised bear's paw, ginseng soup, banquet dishes shark's fin, swallow's nest duck and ginseng velvet ball are popular with diners.A sample menu of local delicacies in Jilin city includes ginseng chicken cooked in sand pot, steamed white-fish soup, fresh raw fish dish, assorted frog fat, braised bear's paw, clear soup in hot pot, and bean curd bags.Forest frog which is found in the Jilin mountain areas is popularly known as Hashinma frog. Many years ago, a frog accumulates transparent fat in the ovary. The fat can be cooked into a very nutritious and popular dish because of the high protein, hormone and vitamin content it contains. The assorted frog fat dish, prepared with the frog fat as the main ingredient, is very popular among diners.The "Changbaishan Treasure Banquet" includes famous dishes with unique local flavors which are prepared by very experienced chefs with special local ingredients like ginseng, bear's paw, venison, Feilong Bird (Flying Dragon Bird) meat, frog fat and monkey-head mushroom, all of which are conveniently available in Changbaishan region. The Feast consists of more than dozen dishes, cold or hot, meat or vegetarian, all prepared with special local ingredients. These dishes are not only praised for beautiful color, pleasant smell and delicious flavor, but also known for their nutrition and tonic value.
Transportation in JilinThere are 35,216 kilometers of highways, including over 500 kilometers of expressways. The province has an excellent rail network, originally built by the Japanese, with Changchun as its main hub. There are four major new railway projects which started construction in 2007. They will include the middle section of a massively invested north-south high-spead railway trunk line connecting Harbin and Dalian, and a 96.5 kilometer inter-city railway line from Changchun, capital city of Jilin province, and Jilin city. The Changchun-Jilin line, expected to be completed in 2010, will cut the journey times between the cities from the current 96 minutes to 30.The only commercial airport is Changchun International Airport, other non-commercial airports are Jilin Airport, Yanji Airport and Tonghua Liuhe Airport. Jilin is landlocked. However, river navigation is possible from April to November. The major river ports are at Da'an, Jilin city and Fuyu. In 2007, Jilin started construction on a two-phase RMB60 million comprehensive river port; the first phase of this is finished. The port is located on the Songhua River and has an annual throughput of two million tons and will connect to the waterways of Northeast China.
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