Chinese provinces: Jiangxi - Famous for Poyang Lake - the largest freshwater lake of China

Updated:Fri, Jul 20, 2012 23:16 PM    Related:Chinese provinces

Chinese provinces

Jiangxi Province 江西 belongs to East China. The major scenic spots include: Mount Lushan, Poyang Lake, and the cities of Nanchang, Jiujiang. Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake and Jingdezhen is the porcelain capital of China.


General information

Area: 160,000 square km

Population: 43.39 million (2006)

Capital City: Nanchang

Nationalities: Han (99.7%), and She (0.3%)

GDP : CNY546.9 billion(2007)

Average temperature: 3oC to 9oC in January, 27oC to 31oC in July.

Mountains:Mufu, Jiuling, and Luoxiao Mountains along the western border; Nanling Mountains in the south; Wuyi Mountains in the east.

Rivers and lake: the Ganjiang-Poyang drainage system covers most of the province and empties into the Yangtze River, which coincides with part of Jiangxi's northern border; Poyang Lake, 3,583 square kilometers, China's largest fresh water lake.

Administrative divisions: 12 cities and 77 counties.

Neighboring areas: Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Hubei, and Anhui Province.

Major cities: Nanchang, Jiujiang, Ganzhou, Jingdezhen, Ji'an, Ruijin.

Tourist attractions: Mount Lushan, by Poyang Lake; Jingdezhen, an ancient town known as the"capital of ceramics".

Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; pinyin: Jiāngxī; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi) belongs to East China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south.

The name of the province does not mean “west of the Yangtze” as a literal reading would imply, but originated as a contraction of “Jiangnan Xi” (江南西; “West Jiangnan”, or more literally “the west of the south of the Yangtze”). The name was coined when Jiangnan (”south of the Yangtze”) Circuit was split into western and eastern halves during the Tang Dynasty. The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (Pinyin: Gàn), for the Gan River.

Jiangxi is landlocked and surrounded by six provinces. It borders Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest.

Geography of Jiangxi

Mountains surround Jiangxi on three sides, with the Mufu Mountains, Jiuling Mountains, and Luoxiao Mountains on the west; Huaiyu Mountains and Wuyi Mountains on the east; and the Jiulian Mountains and Dayu Mountains in the south. The southern half of the province is hilly with ranges and valleys interspersed; while the northern half is flatter and lower in altitude. The highest point in Jiangxi is Mount Huanggang in the Wuyi Mountains, on the border with Fujian. It has an altitude of 2157 m.

The Gan River dominates the province, flowing through the entire length of the province from south to north. It enters Lake Poyang in the north, the largest freshwater lake of China; that lake in turn empties into the Yangtze River, which forms part of the northern border of Jiangxi. Important reservoirs include the Xiushui Tuolin Reservoir in the northwest of the province on the Xiushui River, and the Wan'an Reservoir(zh) in the upper section of the Gan.

Climate of Jiangxi

Jiangxi's climate is subtropical. Average temperatures are about 3 to 9°C in January and 27 to 31°C in July. Annual precipitation is 1200 to 1900 mm.

Nanchang, the region's capital and the most densely populated city, is one of China's largest metropolis. Nanchang is the hub of Jiangxi civilization throughout its history, which plays a leading role in the commercial, intellectual and industrial and political fields. While Ganzhou is the largest subdivision of Jiangxi.

Economy of Jiangxi

Rice is the dominant crop in Jiangxi. Cash crops commonly grown include cotton and rapeseed.

Jiangxi is a rather poor province when compared to its neighboring provinces. It is located in extreme proximity to some of the richest provinces of China (Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian), which are sometimes blamed for taking away talent and capital from Jiangxi.

Jiangxi's nominal GDP for 2009 was 765 billion yuan (112.1 billion USD) and a per capita of 17,248 RMB (2,525USD).

History of Jiangxi

Jiangxi was under the states of Chu in the Spring and Autumn Period. In 733 A.D. Jiangnan Dao (an ancient administrative division) was divided into two parts, the eastern Dao and western Dao. The western Dao was called Jiangxi (west of the Yangtze River) for short, hence its name. It was named Jiangxi province in Qing Dynasty (1368-1644), which has remain ever since. The Jinggang Mountains were the first rural revolutionary base area set up by the late Chairman Mao Zedong in 1927; Nanchang, a heroic city where the " August 1st" Uprising took place in 1927, the day is regarded as the founding of People's Liberation Army (PLA); Ruijin, the site for the central work-peasant democratic government during the Second Revolutionary War; and Anyuan, one of the birthplace of the Chinese worker's movement led by Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi.

Administrative divisions

Jiangxi is divided into eleven prefecture-level divisions, all prefecture-level cities:

# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Administrative Seat

— Prefecture-level city —

1 Nanchang 南昌市 Nánchāng Shì Donghu District

2 Fuzhou 抚州市 Fǔzhōu Shì Linchuan District

3 Ganzhou 赣州市 Gànzhōu Shì Zhanggong District

4 Ji'an 吉安市 Jí'ān Shì Jizhou District

5 Jingdezhen 景德镇市 Jǐngdézhèn Shì Zhushan District

6 Jiujiang 九江市 Jiǔjiāng Shì Xunyang District

7 Pingxiang 萍乡市 Píngxiāng Shì Anyuan District

8 Shangrao 上饶市 Shàngráo Shì Xinzhou District

9 Xinyu 新余市 Xīnyú Shì Yushui District

10 Yichun 宜春市 Yíchūn Shì Yuanzhou District

11 Yingtan 鹰潭市 Yīngtán Shì Yuehu District

Places of Interests and Tourist Attractions of Jiangsu

Jiangxi has beautiful landscapes with green mountains and clear waters. The major scenic spots include: Mount Lushan, Jinggang Mountain, Longhu (Dragon and Tiger) Mountain, Sanqing Mountain, Poyang Lake, and the cities of Nanchang and Jingdezhen.

Mount Lushan has been listed as a World Heritage site by the UNESCO. Together with Jinggang and Sanqing mountains, it offers charming peaks and quiet valleys.

Guifeng Peak and Dragon Palace are noted for their precipitous cliffs and deep caves. The landscapes of Poyang Lake and Ganjiang River are attractive while ancient temples at Longhu Mountain, Qingyuan and Donglin attract visitors with unique religious architectures.

Other scenic attractions or sites of historical interest include Tengwang Tower, Bajing Terrace, the former residences of historical nobilities in Linchuan and Jiujiang, headquarters of the Red Army on Jinggang Mountain, Memorial Museum of Nanchang Uprising and Ruijin, the first capital of the Communist administration in China.

The northern Jiangxi triangle tourism zone comprising Nanchang, Lushan Mountain, Jiujiang, Poyang Lake and Longhu Mountain is one of the 14 major international tour routes in China. The province has 11 cultural relics put under state protection and 2,406 of its scenic spots or tourism areas have been registered as major provincial projects.

Lu Shan

Lushan, in Jiujiang, is one of China's most famous mountains. Its scenery has attracted tourists throughout all of China's history.

Numerous legends and fables have been told about its points of interest, and now it has been classified as a National Park under state protection.

Lushan is abundant in scenic spots, springs, rocks of fancy shapes, and waterfalls, for which it is especially famous. In the summer Lushan is a perfect resort place, and in the winter it presents a unique snow clad mountain view. On the mountains there are also many ancient temples and Buddhist cultural relics.

Among the many waterfalls of Mount Lu, theThree Step Waterfall, known as the first wonder of nature on Lushan, is the most prominent. Formed on a three-step ice staircase, it is fed by spring waters from high precipices of the Five Old Men Peak and the Great Moon Hill. Crashing down the terraces of the hill, it cascades into a three-step fall. Enchanted by its serene and beautiful night scene, the great painter Zhao Ziang of the Yuan Dynasty wrote poetically of it: "Flowing like a jade curtain it falls a thousand feet. The crescent moon is the curtain hook hanging high in the night sky."

Lying between Five Old Men Peak and the Nine Wonder Peak is a mountain range below, a colossal depression known as Hanpo Pass. Stone steps from a stone structure at one end of the mountain lead to Hanpo Pavilion at the top. This is the best place to view a panoramic scene with Poyang Lake receding into the distance. Especially in the mornings one can have a perfect view of the sun rising in the east. Here, tourists can also watch the fleeting clouds arising from every side, whirling within the confines of the Hanpo Pass.


Jingdezhen, in northeast Xiangxi, has a population of 290,000. Jingdezhen is especially famous for its manufacture of porcelain and is known as the Porcelain Capital of China. Jingdezhen has a history of porcelain-making that goes back more than 1,000 years. In as early as the Sui and Tang Dynasties, porcelain-making here was already well-known, and the porcelain products are described as Jade-like wares. Jingdezhen has also become a tourist attraction. Many spots to visit are connected with the porcelain-making, such as the Museum of Ceramic History, the Ancient Hutian Kiln Site, and various porcelain factories.

Located in Dexing City southeast of Jingdezhen, Mount Sanqing used to be a sacred place for Taoist activities. It is now classified as a National Park under state protection. Mount Sanqing, also known as Shaohua Mountain, is famous for its three peaks: Jujing Peak, Yuhua Peak, and Yuxu Peak, which resemble the three gods worshipped in Taoism. The main peak, Yujing Peak, is as high as 1,817 meters above sea level. On Mount Sanqing there are also rocks of various shapes and a number of Taoist buildings such as pavilions, gates, palaces, halls, and other buildings. It has become an attractive place for tourists.

Jiangxi Local Cuisine

Based on Nanchang and Ganzhou schools, the Jiangxi food is characterized by its fine local ingredients and special culinary arts (including broiling, steaming, stir-frying, stewing, braising and rice-power steaming). The food is widely acceptable as it is tasty, oily but not rich and neither too salty nor too hot. Xinya Restaurant in Nanchang is noted for its delicately cooked, brightly coloured and savoury local specialities, Xinguiyuan, Shixianlou and Dongfanghong are also first class restaurants in Nanchang.

Jiangsu Culture

Jiangxi is the main area of concentration of the Gan varieties of Chinese, spoken over most of the northern two-thirds of the province. Examples include the Nanchang dialect, Yichun dialect and Ji'an dialect. The southern one-third of the province speaks Hakka. There are also Mandarin, Huizhou, and Wu dialects spoken along the northern border.

Ganju (Jiangxi opera) is the type of Chinese opera performed in Jiangxi.

Jingdezhen is widely regarded as the producer of the best porcelain in China.

Jiangxi also was a historical center of Chan Buddhism.

Prominent examples of Hakka architecture can be found in Jiangxi.

Transportation in Jiangxi

The major means of transportation for traveling in JIangxi are flights, railway and highway.


The civil aviation in Jiangxi province has developed very fast since the founding of PRC. By now, Jiangxi has formed an aviation network which serves the city of Nanchang as the center and radiates to the city of Jiujiang, the city of Zhangshu, the city of Taihe, the city of Ji'an, the city of Jingdezhen, the city of Ganzhou in the province and other provinces in China and even Hong Kong. Besides Nanchang airport, Jiangxi still has three other airports. They are Jiujiang airport, Ganzhou airport and Jingdezhen airport.


Jiangxi has five main railway lines and they are Jingjiu, Zhegan, Wangan, Yingxia, Wujiu. Besides that, it also has several feeder railways such as Hengnan, Xiangle, Fenwen, Gezhang, Zhangtang, Zhangjian, Xintai.


Jiangxi province has formed a comprehensive highway system accessible from all directions. The motorway from Jiujiang to Zhangshu which crosses the capital city Nanchang has already been completed. The Liwen motorway has also been open to traffic. Anyone who comes to Jiangxi from the 320 national highway will get on the Liwen motorway, and at last reach Nanchang city or Lu Mountain. Besides those motorways, there are six national highways cross Jiangxi province. Four of the six national highways cross Jiangxi from east to west. They are 316 national highway from Fuzhou to Lanzhou, 319 national highway from Xiamen to Chengdu, 320 national highway from Shanghai to Ruili in Yunnan province, and 323 national highway from Ruijin to Lancang in Yunnan province. The other two national highways cross Jiangxi from north to south. They are 105 national highway from Beijing to Zhuhai, and 206 national highway from Yantai to Shantou.




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